Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy

Researchers have shown that periodontal disease in expectant mothers actually exposes their unborn child to many different risks; particularly if they also happen to be diabetes sufferers.

Periodontal disease generally begins with a bacterial infection in the gum (gingival) tissue, which progressively destroys the tissue and the underlying bone.  If left untreated, the bacterial infection causes an inflammatory reaction in the body, which can significantly deepen the gum pockets (space between the teeth and gums) and forces the gum and jawbone to recede.  Eventually, the progressive nature of periodontal disease causes the teeth to become loose and unstable, and eventually fall out.

Pregnancy causes many hormonal changes which increase the risk of the expectant mother to develop gingivitis (inflammation of the gum tissue) and periodontal disease.  These oral problems have been linked in many research studies to preeclampsia, low birth weight of the baby and premature birth.  Expectant women should seek immediate treatment for periodontal disease in order to reduce the risk of pre-natal and post-natal complications.

Reasons for the Connection

There are many different reasons why periodontal disease may affect the health of the mother and her unborn child:

  • Prostaglandin – Periodontal disease appears to elevate levels of prostaglandin in mothers who are suffering from the more advanced forms of the condition.  Prostaglandin is a labor-inducing compound found in one of the oral bacteria strains associated with periodontitis.  Elevated levels of prostaglandin can cause the mother to give birth prematurely and deliver a baby with a low birth weight.

  • C - reactive protein (CRP) – This protein, which has been previously linked to heart disease, has now been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia and premature birth.  Periodontal infections elevate C-reactive protein levels and amplify the body’s natural inflammatory response.  Periodontal bacteria may enter the bloodstream causing the liver to produce CRP which leads to inflamed arteries as well as possible blood clots.  These inflammatory effects can then lead to blocked arteries causing strokes or heart attacks.

  • Bacteria spread – The bacteria which colonize in the gum pockets can readily travel through the bloodstream and affect other parts of the body.  In pregnant women, research has found that oral bacteria and associated pathogens have colonized in the internal mammary glands and coronary arteries.

Diagnosis and Treatment

There are many safe, non surgical treatment options available for pregnant women.  It is of paramount importance to halt the progress of periodontal disease in order to increase the chances of a safe and healthy delivery.

Initially, the dentist will assess the exact condition of the gums and jawbone in order to make a precise diagnosis.  Scaling and root planing are two common non-surgical procedures used to rid the tooth-root surfaces of calculus (tartar) and remove the bacterial toxins from the gum pockets.

The advantages to the pregnant woman are plentiful.  The risks of pregnancy complications caused by periodontal disease are reduced by as much as 50%, and these treatments will alleviate many unpleasant and harmful effects associated with gingivitis and periodontal infection.

Dentists can provide dental education and recommendations to the pregnant women on effective home care which can reduce risks that may affect her and/or her child’s health.  Risks of periodontal disease can be vastly reduced by proper home care, smoking cessation, dietary changes and the ingestion of supplementary vitamins.

If you have any questions or concerns about periodontal disease and its affect on pregnancy, please ask your dentist.

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Dr. Baltazar has been our family dentist for more than 20 years. In all that time, we have received only the absolute best quality care and treatment. His credentials, expertise and reputation are all impeccable.
Whether the treatment plan is simple or complex, he has always taken as much time as necessary to make sure we understand exactly what is to be done and why. We never feel like we're being rushed or being confused by complex technical jargon. One of my fears used to The Needle, but I am still continually amazed by his precise, gentle and deft administration of anesthesia. I actually sort of look forward to it!
His assistants and staff deserve praise, too. Both the front office staff and his technicians are always considerate, cheerful but also knowledgeable. Long-time office manager Cecilia has always been so helpful and friendly to us that we practically regard her as another family member.
Just as we came to Dr. Baltazar's practice by way of an enthusiastic recommendation from a trusted friend, we would not hesitate to recommend him to anyone looking for the best dentist in town.

Tim Scott and Linda Fetch

Dr. B.~ You have set a high bar of expectations for any dentist who treats me to attempt to reach. I cannot thank you enough for all of the outstanding care you have provided to me over these last few years. May the Lord bless you in the next 30 (or however many) years of your practice! With fond gratitude,

Margaret Lowing

You'll not find a more caring, personal dentist around! I've been going to him for over 10 years. My two young daughters even requested to go to him OVER their previous childhood dentist (who had video games and movies playing at all times) which says alot! Dr. Baltazar is a dentist you can trust with yourself and your family!

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